EPON ( 2.5G)
RFoG RFoG RFoG
1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660
2017, there are already more than 300 million fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) subscribers globally. Multiple services, such as
video, audio and internet (broadband and
wireless), can be supported over the same
thread of singlemode fiber.
Several components make up
• Optical line terminals (OLTs) are
the endpoint hardware devices in
a PON. As active central aggregation equipment, they are located in
the main crossconnect/equipment
room. They replace multiple Layer
2 access switches in telecommunications rooms.
• Optical distribution networks (ODNs)
distribute signals to network users.
These passive non-wavelength-selec-
tive optical splitters/couplers can be
mounted to the rack, wall, ceiling or
floor. They are typically seen in split
ratios of 1: 16, 1: 32, and up to 1:128
based on link distance and power
class. Upstream (U/S) and down-
stream (D/S) signals use different
wavelengths over one singlemode
• Optical network terminals (ONTs/ONUs)
are active end devices with a small
switch at the access point (e.g. work
area, hotel room, etc.). They converge
services like Ethernet, Power over
Ethernet, Plain Old Telephone Service,
Voice over Internet Protocol, RF video,
Internet Protocol TV, and videoconfer-encing to end-user ports.
POLAN standards: GPON and EPON
POLAN is adapted from the PON standards for indoor LAN applications; therefore, there is no dedicated standard body
for POLAN deployment. Instead, several standard bodies provide guidance.
1) Full Service Access Network (FSAN),
the International Telecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T), the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) and Data Over Cable
Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS)
provide system guidance. 2) ANSI/TIA-568
and BICSI TDMM 13 provide components
and cabling guidance. 3) The Association
for Passive Optical LAN (APOLAN) promotes POLAN technology and deployment.
The first PON architecture was initially developed by the FSAN working
group, which was formed by major telecommunications service providers and
system vendors. ITU-T continued the
work, and standardized newer generations of PON.
Passive optical networking is deployed in fiber-to-the-x networks, in an architecture
that combines copper and fiber cable. A PON facilitates fiber to the curb (FT TC),
fiber to the node (FTTN), fiber to the building (FT TB), and fiber to the home (FTTH).
Ethernet PON (EPON) is a 1-Gbit/sec PON standard ratified as part of the IEEE
802.3’s Ethernet in the First Mile project. The 10G EPON standard was also
developed to support 10G/10G symmetric downstream and upstream speed.
Table 2: IEEE EPON standards
IEEE EPON family
Wave length Data speed
Downstream Upstream Downstream Upstream
1480-1500 nm 1290-1330 nm 2. 5 Gbits/sec 1. 25 Gbits/sec
10G EPON 802.3bk,
av (CL. 75)
1575-1580 nm 1290-1330 nm 10.3125 Gbits/sec 1. 25 Gbits/sec
1575-1580 nm 1260-1280 nm 10.3125 Gbits/sec 10.3125 Gbits/sec
CCSA EPON 1480-1500 nm 1260-1360 nm 1. 25 Gbits/sec 1. 25 Gbits/sec 1575-1580 nm 1260-1360 nm 10.3125 Gbits/sec 1. 25 Gbits/sec
100G EPON 802.3ca
O-Band (TBD) O-Band (TBD) 25 Gbits/sec ≤ 25 Gbits/sec
O-Band (TBD) O-Band (TBD) 50 Gbits/sec ≤50 Gbits/sec
O-Band (TBD) O-Band (TBD) 100 Gbits/sec ≤100 Gbits/sec